Piping Design

[Section A] Piping Systems Detailed Engineering /Plant & Piping Layout Engineering / Piping Drafting.

Module 1 – Piping Fundamentals

  • Introduction to Process Plants.
  • Difference between Code and Standards o Scope of Piping in Projects.
  • Plant Piping Systems and Transportation Pipelines.
  • Definition & Application of Pipe o Difference between pipes and tubes/
  • Pipe Designators – NPS , IPS , NB, Pipe Wall Thickness & Schedule, Pipe Weights, Lengths, Grades, Ends, Joining Methods, Methods of Manufacture, Pipe Ratings, Pipe Symbols.
  • ASTM Specifications of pipes.

Module 2 – Pipe Fittings – ASME Standards, Selection, Application, Drawing Symbols & Dimensioning.

  • Types of Fittings – Butt Weld, Screwed & Socket Weld.
  • Elbow – 90 degree (LR & SR), 45 degree, Reducing Ell, Elbow Representations on drawings, different views, drawing call outs.
  • Pipe Bends – Miter Bends, Miter types, Miter angle determination, Miter stress requirements, 180 degree Return, Representations on drawings.
  • Branch Connections – Weld Straight & Reducing Tee, Cross & Lateral. Representations on drawings, drawing call outs.
  • Reducers – Concentric & Eccentric, Reducer Offsets Representations on drawings, Drawing call outs.
  • Eccentric reducer applications, offset calculation.
  • Stub Ends, Stub end types: Long, Short, Class A, Class B Representations on drawings, Application of Stub Ends.
  • Fabricated Branch Connections – Stub In & Stub On, Representations on drawings, Welding Minimums for Stub In.
  • Branch Reinforcements – Reinforcing Pad, Welding Saddle, Representations on drawings, Drawing call outs.
  • O let Fittings – Weldolets, Sockolets, Threadolets, Latrolets, Elbolets & Sweepolets, Nipolet, Flangolet Representations on drawings.
  • Types of Couplings: Full coupling, Reducing coupling, Half coupling, Representations on drawings, Drawing call outs.
  • Weld Cap, Plug, Representations on drawings, Drawing call outs.
  • Fitting Makeup – Dimensioning, Placement of Dimensions.
  • Minimum Pipe length requirements.
  • Screwed & Socket Weld Fittings – Union, Plug, Coupling, Types of couplings, coupling applications. Types of Swages, Swage end configurations. Swage applications.
  • Classes of Screwed & Socket Weld Fittings
  • Dimensioning Exercises

Module 3 – Pipe Flanges – ASME Standards, Symbols, Selection & Application.

  • Definition of Flange.
  • Types of Flanges and Application, P-T. Ratings. – Forged Steel and Cast Iron Flanges.
  • Flange Facings – Flat Face, Raised Face, RTJ, & Male – Female, Tongue & Groove. Flange Face Finish types, application.
  • Weld Neck, Slip On, Threaded, Socket Weld, Lap-Joint, Reducing, Blind & Orifice Flanges.
  • Flange considerations by a Piping Engineer and by Code. Bolt hole requirements. Bolts & Nuts types.
  • Gaskets – Types, Thickness, selection requirements
  • Flange selection exercise.
  • Dimensioning Exercises.

Module 4 – Valves – ASME/API Standards, Symbols, Selection & Application.

  • Valve Functions, P-T Ratings, Difference in Valve and flange Ratings, Valve Tag numbers, Locations & End Connections.
  • Valve Types – Gate, Globe, Ball, Check, Butterfly, Angle, PRV/PSV, Plug, Control Valve, Diaphragm, Needle, Piston, Flush bottom, 3-Way, 4-Way, etc.
  • Control Valve Manifold: Types, Function, Layout types, Representation & Requirements on flow Diagrams and Layouts.
  • Valve Operators.
  • Valve Data Sheet preparation and understanding.
  • Valve Trim.
  • Valve Selection.
  • Valve Layout Considerations.
  • Dimensioning Exercises.

Module 5 – ASME Codes & Standards

  • Introduction to ASME Pressure Piping Design Codes.
  • ASME Standards for Common Piping Elements.
  • API Codes.
  • Other Codes & Standards.

Module 6 – Piping Special Elements.

  • Strainers
  • Bellows/Expansion Joints.
  • Rupture Disc.
  • Spectacle Blind.
  • Steam Traps.
  • Flame Arrestor.
  • Vortex Breaker.

Module 7 – Process Mechanical Equipments – API Standards, Symbols, & Application.

  • Static – Horizontal Vessels, Distillation columns, Storage Tanks, Heat Exchanger & Re boiler, Fired Heaters, Reactors, Cooling Towers.
  • Rotary – Pumps, Compressor, Fans.
  • Vessel trim.

Module 8 – Flow Diagrams.

  • Block flow Diagrams-BFD,
  • Process Flow Diagram – PFD.
  • Utility Flow Diagram- UFD,
  • Piping & Instrumentation Diagram – P & ID.
  • Line Numbering,
  • Line Number requirements,
  • Piping Tracing (Jacket Piping ,Steam/Electric tracing).
  • P& ID Requirements,
  • Line Designation table/ Line list creation from P & ID.
  • Print Reading Exercise,
  • Flow Diagram Exercises,
  • Symbols & Abbreviations.
  • Equipment vendor data/PDS,
  • Instrument Types & Symbols – Flow, Temp, Pressure & Level.
  • Instrument Hook-up Drawing

Module 9 – Piping Material Specification (PMS)/ Piping class

  • PMS and its requirements,
  • Piping Specifications / Material Selection / P-T ratings / Valve Data / Branch table / Abbrevation details.
  • PMS Application/Use by various departments.

Module 10 – Plot Plan, Equipment Layout, & Piping GA Drawings.

  • Plot Plan Development & Requirements.
  • Layout Terminology & call outs,
  • Control Point & Plant north, Battery Limits.
  • Equipment Layout: Types, Guidelines for preparation based on type,
  • Guidelines for Building layout types.
  • Piping GA Drawing Requirements and Layout Procedure.
  • Pipe routing requirements
  • Pump GA Drawing and Layout Consideration.
  • Tank & Vessel Layout Consideration.
  • GA – Print Reading Exercise.
  • Inputs (Drawings/Documents) for piping G A drawings.

Module 11 – Piping Isometrics

  • Isometric requirements
  • Drawing Piping Isometrics
  • Isometric Dimensions, Notes & Callouts.
  • Isometric Offsets.
  • Print Reading Exercises.
  • Exercises on Creation of Isometrics form Piping Plans and Sections.
  • Inputs (Drawings/Documents) for piping Isometric drawings.

Module 12 – Piping Spools

  • Definition
  • Types of Spool Drawings.
  • Guidelines to Prepare Spool Drawings.
  • Print Reading Exercises.
  • Exercises on Creation of Piping Spool from Piping Isometrics.
  • MTO (Material Take Off): Types, and applications.

Module 13 – Pipe Supports

  • Classification of Supports.
  • Primary supports
  • Secondary supports
  • Rest supports
  • Anchor supports
  • Standard supports
  • Standard support details required
  • Non Standard supports/Special pipe supports (SPS)
  • SPS requirements.
  • Pipe Guides.
  • Limit Stops.
  • Pipe Shoe.
  • Shoe Guides / Hold down guides,
  • Dummy Leg / Trunion.
  • Field Support / Base Support.
  • Rigid Hangers – Rod & Clevis, Trapeze.
  • Pick up supports,
  • Flexible/Spring supports – Variable & Constant.
  • Control valve manifold supports.
  • Piping support Engineer work procedure.
  • Pipe Rack Design – Types, Height & Width Calculations, Pipe Arrangements.
  • Control Station & Utility Station on Pipe Racks.

[Section B] Piping Systems Design

Module 1 – Pressure Design of Process Piping Systems – ASME B 31.3.

  • Scope of ASME B 31.3, B31.4 & B 31.8
  • ASME B 31.3 Fluid Service Categories.
  • Design Pressure & Design Temperature for Piping Systems.
  • P-T Rating Determination of Flanges, Threaded & Socket Weld Fittings.
  • Pressure Design of Straight Pipe under Internal Pressure. – Wall thickness Calculations.
  • MDP – Maximum Design Pressure for Piping Systems
  • Branch Reinforcements – Reinforcement Pad Calculations.
  • Pressure Design of Miter Bends – Single & Multiple Miters.
  • Pressure Design of Blanks.
  • Pipeline Wall thickness Calculations – B 31.4 / B 31.8.
  • MAOP – Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure for Pipelines.
  • Piping Material Selection per ASME Code.

 Module 2 – Pressure Drop Due to Friction o Velocity Variation in Pipes

  • Typical Velocities for Water Piping & Other Liquids
  • Pipe Sizing o Hazen Williams Equation
  • Darcy Weisbach Equation
  • Friction Factor
  • Reynolds Number
  • Colebrook White Equation
  • Moody Diagram
  • Minor Losses in Pipe Fittings – Equivalent Length Method & K-Factor method.

    Module 3 – Pressure & Horse Power Required

  • Total Pressure Required to Transport – Friction Head, Elevation Head, And Minimum Delivery Pressure.
  • Elements of Total Dynamic Head – Static Head, Pressure Head, Velocity Head, Friction Head.
  • Pump Horse Power Required.
  • Cavitation in Pumps.
  • NPSH Required & NPSH Available for Pumps.

[Section C] Pipe Stress Analysis

Module 1 – Introduction to Objectives & Definition of Stress Analysis

  • Piping Loads – Primary, Secondary, Sustained Loads, Occasional Loads, Static & Dynamic Loads.
  • Piping Stresses- Primary, Secondary.
  • Stresses acting in Pipe due to internal Pressure.
  • Stresses acting in Pipe due to pipe weight.
  • Critical Line List & its criteria.
  • Information Required for Stress Analysis.
  • Occasional Loads
  • Wind Load.
  • Seismic Load.
  • Water Hammer Load.
  • Theories of Failure.
  • Requirements of ASME B 31.3 Code – Sustained Loads, Thermal Expansion & Occasional Loads.

Module 2 – Pipe Span Calculations

  • Span limitations based on Stress, Deflection & Natural Frequency.
  • Allowable Pipe Span Calculations.
  • Suggested Pipe Support Spacing.
  • Pipe Span Reduction Factor for Elbows, Concentrated Loads etc.

Module 3 – Flexibility Analysis – Expansion Loops & Expansion Joints.

  • Concept of Thermal Expansion.
  • Providing Flexibility in Piping.
  • Minimum Leg Required to Absorb Thermal Expansion.
  • Stress Nomographs for Pump and Vessel Piping.
  • Types of Expansion Loops.
  • Expansion Loop Sizing for Hot Piping.
  • Expansion Loops requirements on pipe racks.
  • Nozzle Thermal Growth Calculations – pumps, vessels, heat exchangers.
  • Expansion Joints – Types, Application & Selection.
  • Bellow Materials, Hydrostatic Test Pressure for Bellows.
  • Guide Spacing for Expansion Joints.
  • Severe Cyclic Conditions.

Module 4 – Layout Solutions for Weight, Thermal, Vibration & Wind Loads.

  • Causes of Pipe Stress.
  • Solving Concentrated Loads and Reducing Loads on Equipment Nozzles.
  • Checking Piping Layout in Pipe Racks.
  • Checking Piping Layout for Reciprocating Equipment.
  • Checking Piping Layout for Wind Load.
  • Solutions for piping loads.
  • Selection of Supports, Location of Supports and Restraints on a Pump Piping Layout.

Module 5 – Flexibility Analysis using ASME B 31.3 Code Equations.

  • Thermal Expansion Stress – Se, Code Allowable Thermal Displacement Stress Range Sa.
  • Stress Range Reduction Factors – f.
  • Bending & Torsion Stress.
  • Formal Analysis Requirements.
  • Inplane & Outplane Bending Moments
  • Stress Intensification Factors – SIF.
  • Calculation of Thermal Expansion Stress
  • Cold Spring.

[Section D] CAESAR – II – Pipe Stress Analysis Software

  • Piping Input Spreadsheet.
  • Modelling of Piping Isometrics – Bends, Returns, Reducers, Valves, Loops etc.
  • Performing Static Analysis.
  • Load case explanations
  • Modifying Load Cases.
  • Hanger Selection.
  • Set up of SUS, OPE, EXP, HYD, HGR Load cases.
  • Set up of Wind Load cases.
  • Set up of Uniform Load cases.
  • Load Case Editor.
  • Evaluating API 610 Pump Nozzle Loads.

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