Principles of Pumps Selection


Main principles of pumps selection

Selection of the pumping equipment is a crucial point that determines both process parameters and in-use performance of the unit under development. During selection of the type of pump three groups of criteria can be distinguished:

1) Process and design requirements
2) Nature of pumped medium
3) Key design parameters

Process and design requirements:

In some cases the pump selection is determined by some stringent requirements for a number of design or process parameters. Unlike piston-type pumps, centrifugal pumps can provide uniform delivery of pumped medium, whereas in order to meet uniformity condition on a piston-type pump its design has to be made noticeably complicated, by arranging on the crankshaft several pistons making reciprocating movements with certain delay from each other. At the same time, delivery of pumped medium in discrete portions of set volume can also be a process requirement. Example of definitive design requirements can be the use of submerged pumps in cases, when it is necessary and only possible to install the pump below level of the pumped fluid.

The pump process and design requirements are seldom definitive, and ranges of suitable types of pumps for various specific cases of application are known as a matter of experience accumulated by humanity, and there is no need to enumerate them in detail.

Nature of pumped medium:

Characteristics of the pumped medium often become a decisive factor in pumping equipment selection. Different types of pumps are suitable for pumping of various media differing in viscosity, toxicity, abrasiveness and many other parameters. So screw pumps can pump viscous media with different inclusions without damaging structure of the medium, and can successfully be used in food-processing industry for pumping of jams and pastes with various fillers. Corrosion properties of the pumped medium determine material design of the selected pump, and toxicity – degree of its air-tightness.

Key design parameters:

Operational requirements specified by different industries can be satisfied by several types of pumps. In the situation like this preference is given to the type of pump which is most suitable under concrete values of key design parameters (capacity, head and power consumption). Tables which in general terms reflect application boundaries of most wide-spread types of pumps are given below.

Field of application (selection) of pumps by the created head

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Fields of application (selection) of pumps by capacity

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Only the pump which corresponds to all three groups of criteria can guarantee long-term and reliable operation.





A hazard and operability study (or HAZOP) is a systematic, critical examination by a team of the engineering and operating intentions of a process to assess the hazard potential of mal-operation or mal-function of individual items of equipment and the consequential effects on the facility as a whole.
It is quite normal to carry out safety reviews. These may take different forms. Experts may be consulted in isolation, without reference to each other. They may instead be gathered in lengthy meetings to discuss the particular topic. Hazops are meetings with a distinct structure, the structure imposing a certain organization, to enhance effectiveness. They are a generalized study technique, equally applicable to microchip manufacture, pharmaceutical synthesis, effluent plant operation or any process.
They should not be seen, however, as a solution to all ills, the ultimate review. The procedure is only anther tool in the safety locker and should be seen as complementary to other techniques. Indeed it is best applied as one stage of a multi-stage procedure, applying different techniques as relevant to each stage. It does not replace, but rather supplements, existing Codes of Practice. Neither can it totally substitute for experience. But, both Codes of Practice and experience are evolved from existing situations. Innovative developments require a review which investigates the unknown. Hazops are a systematic, logical approach to determining problems.

WHY is a HAZOP carried out ?
The reasons for carrying out hazard and operability studies, are :
i. Primarily, to identify hazards, and
ii. To a lesser extent, to resolve these hazards.

In saying this, hazards are very generally defined. They are understood to be events, which :-

i. Lead to injury of people, either inside or outside the plant.
ii. Injure the environment.
iii. Insult the environment. Harmful effects may not occur, but disturbance itself is unacceptable.
iv. Damage the plant, an obvious hazard.
v. Result in loss of production quantity, quality or schedule.
In practice, some resolution of hazards is normally accepted. However a careful balance must be maintained to ensure that the primary purpose of hazard identification is not compromised.

WHEN is a HAZOP carried out ?

The timing of a hazard and operability study is determined by the objectives of a study, and in turn determines the benefits that may be gained. The outline concept of a process may be examined to highlight any major omissions or significant features. As further detailing is carried out, e.g. when the process design is complete, the full study procedure may best be applied. Operating procedures may be examined to ensure that all eventualities have been considered. Modifications including so-called “minor modifications”, generally benefit from a rigorous study. Often an apparently simple, uncomplicated modification can give rise to a greater problem than it was intended to solve. Existing plant and new equipment are other examples of topics that may benefit from study.
Therefore a project may be studied several times in its life-time.
Despite these comments there is quite a distinct benefit from carrying out a proper HAZOP Study in terms of the correct timing and to obtain the maximum cost benefit. Therefore, a hazop cannot be carried out before the line diagrams (or process instrumentation diagrams as they are often called) are complete. It should be carried out as soon as possible thereafter.
If an existing plant is being studied the first step is to bring the line diagrams up to date or check that they are up-to-date. Carrying out a hazop on an incorrect line diagram is the most useless occupation in the world. It is as effective as setting out on a journey with railway timetable ten years out of date.

A hazop takes 1.5-3 hours per main plant item (still, furnace, reactor, heater, etc.). If the plant is similar to an existing one it will take 1.5 hours per item but if the process is new it may take 3 hours per item.

Meetings are usually restricted to 3 hours, twice per day, 2 or 3 or even 4 days per week, to give the team time to attend to their other duties and because the imagination tires after 3 hours at a stretch.

The hazop on a large project may take several months, even with 2 or 3 teams working in parallel on different sections of the plant. It is thus necessary to either :
a) Hold up detailed design and construction until the hazop is complete, or
b) Allow detailed design and construction to go ahead and risk having to modify the detailed design or even alter the plant when the results of the hazop are known.
Ideally, the design should be planned to allow time for (a) but if completion is urgent (b) may have to accepted – but this is not a widely accepted option due to the cost implications.
A preliminary hazop may be carried out on the flowsheet before detailed design starts. This will take much less time than the hazop of the line diagrams and will identify ‘area’ of the process of a particular hazardous nature. It provides a more “structured” and “systematic” approach than a preliminary design review – but NOT the detailed analytical data of a true P&ID HAZOP.





Knowledge Sharing-Key to Innovation


Knowledge sharing is a tool through which knowledge (namely, information, skills, or expertise) is exchanged among people, friends, families, communities or organizations. Due to globalization of economy, rapid growth in information technology, increase in knowledge based work and competition pressure the concept of knowledge management has gained momentum in recent years. Knowledge sharing is a systematic process for creating, acquiring, synthesizing, learning, sharing and using knowledge and experience to achieve personal as well as organizational goal. This knowledge can be inside the employees’ minds or stored in paper form in filing cabinets and/or stored in electronic form. As a concept, knowledge sharing is very attractive and many business organizations would prefer to be associated with it. But knowledge sharing implementation is not easy. There are many barriers in knowledge sharing implementations such as organization culture, lack of understanding the power of knowledge management, fear of IT, immaturity of industry, etc. Above all knowledge management implementation requires sound strategy. For this it is important to make knowledge sharing a distributive system rather than a centralized system. It also requires a platform where the interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge can take place.

Knowledge Sharing: Conceptual Framework

There is no universal definition of knowledge management. Knowledge management means different things to different people, Microsoft explains it as a discipline that treats intellectual capital as managed assets. The primary “tools” applied in the practice of knowledge management is (a) Organizational Dynamics (b) Process  and (c) Technology.

Benefits of Knowledge Sharing

An effective knowledge sharing program should help a company do one or more of the following:

1. Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas.
2. Help in understanding markets and customers.
3. Built your brand value.
4. Development of vision and strategies.
5. Building competencies.
6. Improve customer service by streamlining response time.
7. Boost revenues by getting attractive rewards.

Barriers to Knowledge Sharing Implementations:

There are many barriers to knowledge sharing implementations.
The biggest challenges is how to change mindset of people and how to convert the culture from believing that “knowledge is power” to believing that “knowledge sharing is power”. Such change is not very easy to establish and require constant training and development of human resources of the organizations. Add to this other barriers are:

In general, Managing Knowledge has been perceived as an unmanageable kind of problem – an implicitly human, individual activity – that was in traceable with traditional management methods and technology.

1. Psychological fear.
2. Lack of understanding of Power of Knowledge Management.
3. Inappropriate decision making and operational structure.
4. Lack of simple, easy-to understand-and- implement powerful tools.

According to EDW.2 Research, following issues are the greatest barriers to the successful knowledge management implementations.

1. Inadequate attention to organizational and human dimensions – change management.
2. IT cannot solve what is essentially a management problem because it cannot store human intelligence and experience.

Knowledge Sharing Rewards:

Knowledge sharing as a concept is very attractive and provides huge earning opportunities that should not be missed. It is an engine that transforms knowledge into monitory value. However, implementation of knowledge sharing is not easy. It should be properly structured, planned & organized by an established firm.

We at Texvyn Technologies provide a platform to all working & experienced professionals to come & share their expertise with upcoming talents. We have an attractive reward program for all our valuable mentors from different industries. Lets come together to contribute in India’s growth story & get India recognized as land of innovations.  As far as India is concerned knowledge sharing is still in its infancy. It has to cover a lot of ground to come up to the level of knowledge sharing implementation as, say, like Western countries. In India, there is a need of National Knowledge Sharing Concept to create and harness the knowledge of our own people and start creating and using it.


P&ID Engineering Drawing Interpretation Workshop


This  course gives students the ability to read and understand P&IDs for the analysis of emergency situations; and for safety, environmental and regulatory compliance issues such as Process Hazards Analysis and HAZOP studies.

Xyntech Solutions & Texvyn Technologies announce a training course that teaches how to read and interpret P&ID drawings to evaluate safety, environmental and regulatory compliance issues. Students will learn about drawings and documents essential to safe day-to-day operation including P&IDs, PFDs, Plot Plans, Electrical Area Classification drawings, Piping drawings, Line Lists, Tie-In Lists and Shutdown Keys.

The ability to read and understand these drawings and documents is a requirement for the analysis of emergency situations and for the assessment of safety, environmental and regulatory compliance issues. Understanding these drawings and documents is also critical when performing Process Hazards Analysis and HAZOP studies.

The course is intended for fresh Engineers, operations and maintenance professionals, I&C engineers, engineers in training, mechanical engineers and technologists, health & safety/HSE professionals, and engineers responsible for process hazards analysis, HAZOP and safeguarding studies.

The course will be held at Texvyn’s Training Unit at Thane, Mumbai on November 28- 29, 2015 and again on December 19-20, 2015. To register, go to!workshop/c2049

Instructors from leading EPC industry, will conduct the training. Xyntech Solutions Pvt. Ltd. company focused on process safety & provides standards-driven risk management by offering education, consulting services and software solutions to individuals and organizations over a wide variety of industries. For more information, visit

Complete course description:

P&ID Engineering Drawing Interpretation Workshop

Agenda: Workshop Agenda
Enrollment Link:!workshop/c2049 Or
Email us on:
Location: Thane, Mumbai
Date: November 28- 29, 2015 and December 19-20, 2015

Fees: INR 2500.00 [For Indian Professionals]

          USD 200.00 [For Global Professionals]

The workshop covers:

  •     How to interpret P&IDs

  •     How to understand the process flow

  •     The ability to redline errors or omissions

  •     Understanding instrumentation and other P&ID symbols

  •     Identifying safe operating limits based on system design

Accurate drawings and the ability to read and understand these drawings are a requirement for the analysis of emergency situations and the assessment of safety, environmental and regulatory compliance issues such as Process Hazards Analysis / HAZOP studies.

This course will provide employees with the ability to understand how facilities relate to the drawings so that they can focus on improvements. This course will also provide engineers dealing with Management of Change the ability to speak the same language as operators of the facilities.

It will provide improvement in quality and consistency which will enhance the other processes that rely on the P&ID drawings

P&ID Engineering Drawing Interpretation Workshop – The AGENDA



This two-day course focuses on engineering drawings typically used in the chemical and process industries by engineers and technologists in the design phase, and by operations and maintenance staff once facilities are up and running. It is suitable for anyone interested in how drawings should be interpreted, created, maintained, and used in assessing emergency situations and regulatory compliance issues. The combination of classroom instruction and workshop exercises focuses on critical documentation essential to the safe day-to-day operation of facilities (e.g., P&ID, PFD, Plot Plan, Electrical Area Classification, Piping Drawing, Isometric Drawing, Line List, Tie-In List and Shutdown Keys).

Who Should Attend

  • Facilities, Operations and Maintenance Professionals
  • Fresh Engineers
  • I & C, Mechanical Engineers and Technologists
  • Professionals responsible for Process Hazards Analysis, HAZOP studies or Safeguarding studies
  • Health & Safety / HSE Professionals

Course Outline

  • Introduction
  • Preliminary Engineering Drawings
  • Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
  • Interpreting P&IDs – Valves
  • Interpreting P&IDs – Equipment
  • Interpreting P&IDs – Control and Safety Systems
  • Detailed Engineering Drawings
  • Engineering Drawings for Construction and Operation

Course Agenda

Day One

1.    Introduction
2.    Preliminary engineering drawings
>>> Block flow diagram (BFD)
>>> Process flow diagram (PFD)
>>> Material balance
>>> PFD symbols
3.     Piping and instrumentation diagrams
>>> Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID)
>>> P&ID symbols
>>> Line numbering
>>> Valve numbering
>>> Equipment identification
>>> Abbreviations
4.    Interpreting P&IDs – valves
>>> Valve types
>>> Valve identification
>>> Valve fittings
5.     Interpreting P&IDs – equipment
>>> Vessels
>>> Pumps
>>> Heat exchangers
>>> Compressors
>>> Equipment identification
6.     Drawing interpretation workshop #1

Day Two

7.    Interpreting P&IDs – control & safety systems
>>> Distributed control systems (DCS)
>>> Safety instrument system (sis)
>>> Instrument symbols
>>> Instrument signal lines
>>> Pressure instruments
>>> Temperature instruments
>>> Flow instruments
8.    Detailed engineering drawings
>>> Plot plan
>>> Electrical area classification
>>> Piping drawing
>>> Isometric
>>> Material take off
>>> Line list

>>> Tie-in list
>>> Shutdown key
9.    Drawing interpretation workshop #2
10.  Engineering drawings for construction and operation
>>> Developing as-builds
>>> Preparing for a PHA (HAZOP, what-if, etc)
>>> Management of change (MOC)
11.  Texvyn exercise
12.  Smart P&ID

Enrollment Details

Course Title: P&ID Engineering Drawing Interpretation Workshop

Course Duration: 20 Hrs.
Total Intake: 30 Nos.

Enrollment Link:!workshop/c2049


What is a Steam Trap?

Steam traps are a type of automatic valve that filters out condensate (i.e. condensed steam) and non-condensable gases such as air without letting steam escape. In industry, steam is used regularly for heating or as a driving force for mechanical power. Steam traps are used in such applications to ensure that steam is not wasted.

ANSI defines steam traps the following way:

steam trap – Self contained valve which automatically drains the condensate from a steam containing enclosure while remaining tight to live steam, or if necessary, allowing steam to flow at a controlled or adjusted rate. Most steam traps will also pass non-condensable gases while remaining tight to live steam.

ANSI/FCI 69-1-1989

Why are Steam Traps Installed?

Steam is formed when water vaporizes to form a gas. In order for the vaporization process to occur, the water molecules must be given enough energy that the bonds between the molecules (hydrogen bonds, etc.) break. This energy given to convert a liquid into a gas is called ‘latent heat’.

Steam-based heating processes use latent heat and transfer it to a given product. When the work is done (i.e. steam has given up its latent heat), steam condenses and becomes condensate. In other words, condensate does not have the ability to do the work that steam does. Heating efficiency will therefore suffer if condensate is not removed as rapidly as possible, whether in steam transport piping or in a heat exchanger.


What’s Wrong with Using a Manual Valve?

It is sometimes believed that the load of condensate can be regulated with a regular valve instead of a steam trap by simply adjusting the valve opening manually to match the amount of condensate generated.

Theoretically, this is possible. However, the range of conditions necessary to achieve this are so limited that in practice it is not a realistic solution.

The largest problem with this method is that having the valve opening set to discharge a fixed amount of fluid means that fluctuations in the load of condensate cannot be compensated for. Indeed, the amount of condensate generated in a given system is not fixed. In the case of equipment, the load of condensate at start-up differs from that during normal operation. Fluctuations in the product load also result in differences in the amount of condensate generated. Similarly, in the case of steam transport piping, the load of condensate may differ depending on outdoor air temperature or as a result of heavy rain or snow.

If the device can’t respond to fluctuations in condensate load, condensate that should be discharged will instead pool inside the equipment/pipe and heating efficiency will suffer. On the other hand, when the condensate load lessens, steam leakage will occur and steam will be wasted.


Steam Traps Come in Various Different Mechanisms

Various types of steam trap mechanisms (operation principles) have been developed to automatically discharge condensate and non-condensable gases. The most widely used mechanisms are those that rely on differences in temperature, specific gravities, and pressure. Each of these types of steam traps has its own advantages and applications.


Texvyn’s Engineering Leadership Program

Want to shape your future with growing Process Plant Industry? We have a right opportunity for you. In Texvyn’s Engineering Leadership Program (ELP), you will be molded & trained to be a complete professional engineer by a team of high profile industry leaders and executives. ELP candidates will get an opportunity to work on live industrial case study, which will help them to get familiar with actual industry problems & prepare them to tackle such issues. Get yourself JOB READY with our exclusive Engineering Leadership Program.


What is Texvyn’s Engineering Leadership Program?

The Engineering Leadership Program offers its students the opportunity to discover what leadership in the engineering environment embodies & what today dynamic job market demands. The Program challenges and extends students, within a supportive learning environment, providing a platform for them to acquire technical & leadership skills which will serve them well beyond the transition from student to professional.

Engineering Leadership Program Modules?

  1. Technical Modules on Process Plant Engineering [Selective Programs depending on Qualification]
  • Process Engineering & Advanced Process Simulation Program.
  • SIEMENS COMOS – Plant Life Cycle Management Tool [Exclusive Training Program]
  • Mechanical Design of Process Plant Equipment.
  • Piping Design & Stress Analysis Program.
  • Instrumentation Engineering for Process Plant.
  • Electrical Engineering for Process Plant.
  • Civil & Structural Design for Process Plant.
  • 2D/3D Drafting & Modelling Program [Engineering Diploma/ITI Students Preferred].
  • Smart Drafting & Analysis Tool training. [Add-on Program].
2. Soft Skills & Leadership Modules.
  • What is Leadership?
  • Communication Skills.
  • Critical Thinking & Problem Solving.
  • Interpersonal & Organization Skills
  • Dealing with Work Place Politics.
  • Innovation & entrepreneurship.
  • You & Global Community.
  • Change Management.
  • Facing Job Interview.
  • Importance of creative & strategic thinking.
3. Live Industrial Project Module.
  • Introduction to General Work Flow in EPC Industry.
  • Multi Discipline Engineering Culture.
  • Archived Industrial Case Study.
  • Project Management & Resource Planning.
  • Cost & Time Control.
  • Vendor Management.
  • Industry Visit [Depends on Availability].
  • Real time interaction with global
4. Professional & Job Networking Module.
  • Using LinkedIn & Other Professional Networking Sites.
  • Expert Talk.
  • Job Hunting & Recruitment Portal.
  • Generating Job references.
  • Making your skills sell-able.
Benefits of Texvyn’s ELP
  1. Exclusive training program giving exposure to live industrial environment.
  2. Hands on experience on latest cutting edge engineering tools.
  3. Live interaction with industrial professionals & technology experts.
  4. Soft Skill training from renowned HR Officer.
  5. High profile training program, enhance your skills equivalent to 1 – 3 Yrs experienced professional.
  6. Exclusive training on Siemens Plant Life Cycle Management Program.
  7. Free access for 3 years to Texvyn’s “Lets Connect – Job Networking”
  8. Texvyn’s Dedicated Placement team which works round the clock to ensure that students are gainfully employed.

Our courses are designed keeping in mind the rapid growth of industries and the rising demand for skilled professionals. Texvyn is able to provide its students with a distinct professional advantage for getting a headstart in their desired field.